Water or HHO is a profuse fuel source and can be utilized to end global warming. By splitting the water molecule into hydrogen and oxygen using an efficient means of electrolysis we can utilize the hydrogen produced to power a combustion engine.
Hydrogen is the cleanest burning fuel available and it will not pollute the atmosphere when it burns. When hydrogen burns it combines with oxygen to form two molecules, HHO and OH, or hydroxide. Carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide are not produced by the combustion of hydrogen. This makes water an ideal fuel source. However, I would like to point out we will still need crude oil to produce the many thousands of products we need. However, it will not be needed as a fuel source.
The great benefit of water as a fuel source is that all of the infrastructure is already in place. We have water piped directly into our homes and businesses. By my calculations, one gallon of water contains *92,270 liters of hydrogen gas.
Inventor Stanley Meyer demonstrated a water fuel cell in 1988 to the U.S. Patent Office and received U.S. Patent No. 4,936,961 (https://patents.google.com/patent/US4936961A/en). The patent explains that the fuel cell is a capacitor with fresh water as the dielectric although salt water will work just as well. A pulsating high voltage is applied to the capacitor plates. The high voltage polarizes the water molecule with the hydrogen atoms being attracted to the negative plate and the oxygen atoms attracted to the positive plate. An increasing high-voltage pulse is applied to the plates in a stair-step fashion until the high-voltage overcomes the covalent bond of the water molecule and it is separated into hydrogen and oxygen gases at a high volume. The hydrogen gas is then collected in a separate container and burned in the combustion engine along with oxygen (Meyers, 1987).
Hydrogen and oxygen can also be used to create a battery to power electric vehicles or spacecraft by utilizing oxygen and hydrogen as the battery charge. When a molecule of water is split, the positively charged hydrogen and negatively charged oxygen atoms create a difference of potential that can power an electric motor. The Apollo Spacecraft Moon missions used hydrogen and oxygen in a fuel cell in just this way to provide power to the Apollo missions to Moon and water for the astronauts (https://airandspace.si.edu/collection-objects/fuel-cell-apollo/nasm_A19730934000).
This technology was also been demonstrated in Japan by Genepax in 2008. Genepax had a working model of a small car that got 49.7 miles per liter of water utilizing hydrogen/oxygen battery technology, although more advanced than the Apollo fuel cells (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WLjVVPeyDKk).
Here are some of the benefits of using water as a fuel source: We can eliminate all the power lines that crisscross our country since individual water power units can be mass-produced for home or business use. Electrical lines that emit electromagnetic radiation and spoil our neighborhood view can eventually be eliminated, saving some of our forests which clean the air of carbon dioxide. When enough people begin to use HHO as a fuel source, carbon dioxide levels will drop dramatically and result in falling worldwide temperatures. Also, seawater can be used instead of fresh water and this technology can provide coastal cities with fresh water from the world's oceans. People will no longer burn alive in car accidents since the fuel tank will be full of water and not volatile gasoline. We can purify sewer water before releasing it into our streams and rivers since only hydrogen and oxygen will be removed from polluted water, not particulates.
On the downside, our city water comes from a central point of distribution which can be knocked out, shutting off our water supply and our electricity. Although, fresh water tanks at our homes and businesses can store water and keep our power going until repairs can be made. There will be a displacement of workers in the coal, oil, and natural gas industries. Strong opposition will exist to people becoming energy independent from centralized power sources.
Still, the great benefit that water as a fuel source could be to humanity worldwide cannot be denied.
The Japanese have discovered two different methods of splitting water to yield abundant supplies of hydrogen gas. One is called High-Temperature Steam Electrolysis, or HTSE. The other is called the Iodine-Sulfur process or IS. IS is a thermo-chemical water-splitting process explained in the video below.
I would like to know more concerning the HTSE process; however, I believe that it must not be able to be coupled to the newly developed High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor. Japan has been a world leader in the utilization of hydrogen as a fuel source. Let us begin by explaining Japan's revolutionary new gas-cooled reactor.
The Japanese newly developed nuclear reactor is called the High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor, HTGR for short. The Japanese have already built and successfully tested the HTGR and it is nearly impossible to melt down. Instead of using water to cool the fuel rods, the HTGR uses helium gas, which has a higher capacity to absorb heat than water. The specific heat of water is 4.186 joules per gram per kelvin, whereas helium has a specific heat of 5.1932 joules per gram per kelvin, which is 24 percent better than water. In addition, instead of using fuel rods placed in a large tank of water, the HTGR uses uranium-235 fuel pellets encased in four layers of high-temperature ceramic that is cooled by helium that can reach temperatures as high as 1800 degrees Fahrenheit and not melt down. Once such reactor, called the High-Temperature Test Reaction was tested to criticality at 1800 degrees Fahrenheit and did not melt down. That was in November of 1998. In 2004 it became operational at its full 30 megawatts of power with an output helium coolant temperature of 1700 degrees Fahrenheit. In 2010, the High-Temperature Test Reactor, HTTR, was successfully run for 50 consecutive days. Then in 2011, Japan suffered a major earthquake that triggered a massive tidal wave causing the Fukushima nuclear plants disaster, which also shut down the HTTR. The video which I have included with this writing does not explain what took place from 2004 until 2010 concerning the HTTR. However, the HTTR is today fully operational after passing all new safety standards.
The HTGR produces high-temperature helium which has applications in many areas of industry. Such as steel production as well as running turbines to generate electricity. The beauty of the HTGR is that it does not rely on large volumes of seawater to cool the fuel rods. It can be built anywhere, even right alongside a steel plant, for example, and then the high-temperature helium can be used in the production of steel and other metal products. In addition, if the HTGR for the metals plant is coupled with an IS unit, then the hydrogen gas produced could be burned to heat the metal to its melting point. Also, helium does not corrode the nuclear power plant pipes as does water. In the video just above, the HTGR is coupled with an IS unit to produce large volumes of hydrogen. Water is fed into the system and by a thermochemical process part of the high-temperature helium is used to drive the chemical process. The result is large volumes of hydrogen and oxygen gas are produced.
I do hope I have demonstrated the benefits of the High-Temperature Gas-Cooled nuclear reactor and the Iodine-Sulfur process for splitting water. We could have the technology installed here in San Angelo and begin the production of our own hydrogen gas supply and power the city from a single HTGR. Of course, it would probably be very expensive to build. However, once it is built it would supply both abundant electricity and hydrogen gas, and could also be used to purify our water supply. The HTGR does not produce carbon emissions and neither does hydrogen gas. There are only two known processes of hydrogen gas production that do not produce carbon emissions. One is IS and the other is HTSE.
Written by Wayne Hill
*Calculations for the comment in the text concerning how much hydrogen gas is in a gallon of water.
--One mole of hydrogen is 1.008 grams by weight and is equivalent to 24.62 liters or 6.5 gallons by volume of hydrogen gas. There are 453.51 grams to a pound. When we divide 453.51 grams by 1.008 grams, which is the weight of one mole of hydrogen, we get 449.91 moles of hydrogen in one pound of water. A gallon of water weighs 8.33 pounds. If we now multiply 449.91 by 8.33 by 24.62 liters we get 92,270 liters of hydrogen gas from one gallon of water.--